Sherbet-i-Marifa: Wine of Gnosis

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  1. Alevism - Wikipedia
  2. Jem (Alevism)
  3. Turkish culture

He was permitted to take part in a ritual at the shrine, the focus of which was a large upright rectangular stone, possibly a "local" Kaaba. The stone was said to have fallen from heaven, and it was venerated or at least respected by Muslims and Christians in the region. It was stained black by years of being anointed with holy oils.

The stone was around 6. In this theology it is said that they are only known to and appointed by Allah, and it is through their operations that the world continues to exist. He was viewed as a Messiah and Prophet by his followers. He is buried in Amasya. The established presence of Islam in the region that now constitutes modern Turkey dates back to the latter half of the 11th century, when the Seljuks started expanding into eastern Anatolia. According to religiosity polls, He then took to eating it constantly.

It was deemed compatible with a spiritual life, a positive aid even. It held a prominent place in the society and politics of northwestern Iran in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, but today it is best known for having given rise to the Safavid dynasty. While initially founded under the Shafi'i school of Sunni Islam, later adoptions of Shi'i concepts such as the notion of the Imamate by the children and grandchildren of Safi-ad-din Ardabili resulted in the order ultimately becoming associated with Twelverism.

He eventually became Zahid's chief disciple and married his daughter. It was for the same reasons and in the same regions that these non-orthodox Sufis set out a series of clashes against orthodox Sunnite authorities". As the former enlarged their dominance, the tension between the two had grown. At the peak of this tension occurred the first and most severe clash of Anatolian histo Pir Sultan Abdal ca. Pir Sultan Abdal reflected the social, cultural and religious life of the people; he was a humanist, and wrote about God, Islam, Prophet Muhammad, Imam Ali, Twelve Imams, resistance, love and peace.

He was also rebellious against authoritarian rule which led him into problems with the Ottoman establishment. Most of the information about him and his era we find in his verses, which reveal him as cultivated well educated and intellectual. The Nur Ali Halife rebellion began when Nur Ali Halife, a tribal leader of the Tekkelu tribe named for the Beylik of Teke and former governor of Erzincan, started a rebellion from Rum in in order to recruit soldiers from the Qizilbash murids of Ismail I.

Therefore, he sent Nur Ali Halife in order to fulfill this task. As a result of this, cavalrymen were recruited. He again marched to Toka These six subtleties are thought to be parts of the self in a similar manner to the way glands and organs are part of the body. Among Sufis spiritual development involves awakening centers of perception that lie dormant in every person. The help of a guide is considered necessary to help activate them in a certain order.

Each center is associated with a particular color, a general area of the body, and often with a particular prophet. Activation of all these "centers" is part of the inner methodology of the Sufi way or "Work".

Alevism - Wikipedia

Purification of the elementary passio It is often used in the Quran, notably in a verse that states "God is the light of the heavens and the earth", which has been the subject of much discussion. Many classical commentators on the Quran considered that this should be taken metaphorically, as in the sense that God illuminates the world with understanding, rather than literally. The Sufis consider that light was created first, then all other beings and things were created from it. Kaygusuz Abdal was a Turkish folk poet of the 14th century. Background Kaygusuz Abdal In the 14th century Alaiye was the capital of the small Alaiye beylik principality.

His name was Alaattin Gaybi and Kaygusuz Abdal was his pseudonym. According to tradition he was bey's son i. But instead of politics he chose to be a dervish. His tutor was Abdal Musa. Life Details of his life and travels are ambiguous. Most of the stories attributed to him are not reliable. His works however convey that he travelled to many places. He travelled to Mecca for Hajj. He was also visited Damascus, Najaf and Karbala. There are unreliable accounts of his visits to cities in the Balkans like Yambol, Plovdiv now both in Bulgaria , Bitola now in the Republic of Macedonia and Edirne now in Turkey.

In Egypt he gained the title Abdullah Magaravi "God's servant living in a cave" after spending several years in This is a list of notable Turkish people, or the Turks, Turkish: They include people of Turkish descent born in other countries whose roots are in those countries. For Ottoman people see List of Ottoman people. He has two sisters of whom one is dead. He was apprenticed to a carpenter after he dropped out of school at the second grade of secondary school.

He migrated to Ankara in He gained an expertise in carpentry, and earned his life by working as a famous craftsman and tradesman in this area. It began among the Turcoman tribes of the Taurus mountains, before spreading to a wide variety of disgruntled groups.

His death in battle also meant the end of the uprising. Background The Safavid dynasty was consolidated and founded by Ismail I in the early 16th century. Ismail, being a champion of Shiite faith and partially a Turkmen, was also sympathetic to the Turkmens of Ottoman Empire. Jem Alevism topic The central Alevi communal worship service is called a cem Turkish: Member feedback about Jem Alevism: Turkish culture Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.

Jem topic Look up Jem, jem, or -jem in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Alevism topic Alevism ; Turkish: Member feedback about Alevism: Shia Islam Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Member feedback about Haqq—Muhammad—Ali: Alevism Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Member feedback about Rehber Alevism: Member feedback about Baba Alevism: Member feedback about Bektashi Order: Turkish words and phrases Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.

Member feedback about Pir Alevism: Member feedback about Murshid Alevism: Member feedback about Alevi history: History of Islam Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Member feedback about Four Doors: Sufism Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Member feedback about Islam in the Ottoman Empire: Dede religious figure topic A dede is a socio-religious leader in the islamic Alevi and non-islamic Ishiki community. Member feedback about Dede religious figure: Religious leadership roles Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.

Member feedback about Kartal Cemevi: Member feedback about Yarsanism: Monotheistic religions Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Member feedback about Certain accursed ones of no significance: In spite of being Jewish, he assigned Moses to second place, which is quite extraordinary. Hart , the American astronomer, historian and mathematician, accorded Mohammed first place and his own savior, Jesus, third place in his page book, The Greatest Men in History. Sir James Jeans, the famous physicist and author of The Mysterious Universe, whose words have already been quoted above, was a devout churchgoer.

Yet when told about the Koranic verse: At the end of fifty years of scientific investigations and observations, I was forced to believe in God, to love Him and fear Him. An uneducated person living years ago could not have uttered these words. If the truth you mention is in the Koran, it must be the Book of God, and Mohammed must be a prophet. This is what I believe, you may write this. Wayne Mayer, on the occasion of the meeting of the International Union of Biology Teachers held on the 25th of March, , said the following: In order to comprehend the problems of the universe, we must first know God and His countless attributes.

We need the knowledge and learning contained within the Koran, the word of God. Faith, knowledge and intelligence will lead humanity to God, the Lord of the Universes. As its commentators have all testified, it is such an example that neither the angels nor humanity could achieve the harmony of one single sentence contained in that sacred book. In his study, Investigating the Koran, Ernest Renan declares: The world of literature had never encountered such a form. This is because it was the word of God.

The oneness of God, surrender to His will, and the mediation of the Prophets—these are all in line with our conceptions. Faith in the One God always uplifts the spirit, since this belief shows man the oneness and unity of his inner world. The Duke of Weimar stated: All of our laws that have been formed are found wanting in the face of Islam.

Despite all the civilized possibilities we possess as a European nation, what is for us a first step was achieved by Mohammed long ago. No one can outstrip him. Pushkin, the great Russian poet and man of letters, who is renowned around the world and who had a tremendous influence in his time, wrote the following poem after examining the Glorious Koran:.

The Merciful is He, He is the Compassionate. He revealed the Koran, suffused with light, to Mohammed These veils, these veils, lift up these veils. Let the barriers to our eyes be lifted,. With the Koran, let the walls between us. Collapse, brick by brick The final and greatest religion is Islam.

Roger Garaudy was the child of a French family. He was the head of the Communist Party, the director of the Institute for Marxist Research, a writer on Marxist philosophy, a member of parliament and a senator, and even a candidate for the French Presidency. Sent to prison in Algeria as a political agitator, he had the chance to study Islam at first hand, an enterprise which took him some 40 years.

In , at the age of 68, he announced to the world that he had become a Moslem, saying: All the answers sought by man are in Islam. Islam is ahead of our times. Since the Koran was revealed, it has always been in command of time. Time itself may age, but the Koran will always remain youthful. After years of research and study he wrote The Bible, The Koran and Science, declaring that he had become a Moslem and observing: It is the proof of a true miracle.

Islamic law is generally oriented towards protection. It attaches the greatest importance to the protection of women. According to the Koran and the Prophetic Traditions, men must behave towards their spouses with equity, goodness and understanding. In spiritual terms, marriage elevates humanity to a higher state. Recently, Prince Charles of England had words of high praise for Islam: The surprise, ladies and gentlemen, is the extent to which Islam has been a part of Europe for so long, first in Spain, then in the Balkans, and the extent to which it has contributed so much towards the civilization which we all too often think of, wrongly, as entirely Western.

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Islam is part of our past and present, in all fields of human endeavour. It has helped to create modern Europe. It is part of our own inheritance, not a thing apart. The Glorious Koran is the word of God. As the culmination of all revealed religions, Islam embraces all that humanity is capable of knowing and experiencing. In accordance with the verse: For as God Almighty declares, this is the Religion of Truth, even though there may be those who detest it In examining Islam, do not pass judgment on the basis of its adherents—to err is human, and a bad driver is no excuse for blaming a good car.

Nor should it be judged solely on the basis of its history, for while this is full of shining, outstanding examples, it does not explain much about the religion itself. It is on its own merits that a religion should be judged—what it can do for you, yourself, here and now and in the future. For this it is essential to examine the principles and details of the religion in an unbiased manner: It is due to the scarcity of unbiased source material on the subject in the West that this work has been prepared, with a view to compensating at least a small part of this information gap.

The antics of petty dictators, prejudices, and the fact that Islam has a bad press in the West should not deter a serious person from discovering the facts. Man and the universewhat exactly are they? The two are like twins: Another way of expressing this is that they are like a tree and its flower, its fruit. Without Man, what would the universe do?

And without the universe, what would Man do? The two of them complement one another. That Man is the secret of the infinite worlds, Almighty God has declared in all His sacred texts. God loved the universe, and he made Man love it too. You cannot love God, nor can you find Him, without the attributes of Compassion and Mercy. Look and reflect upon this with wisdom. Try to find the secret of Man.

Love the universe if you want to become fully human. Try to love the universe and find God. Look deeply into Man and the universe and find it. Is Man a guest to the universe, or is the universe a guest to Man? By relying on Revelation, with reflection and with Divine knowledge, you can find the answer to this question.

Man and the universe are one; both are worthy of exaltation. Man and the universe are like two sides of a leaf—they cannot be separated. But if we look at their current state, we see that they both have cast aside love and are lost in a senseless antipathy—avidly consuming one another. What we have witnessed since the first man The prophet Adam is that these two good friends have become enemies. The gold and silver and precious metals, the water and soil that the world yields, humanity tries to consume by eating and drinking and clothing itself. The universe that should be his beloved, Man treats as his enemy.

As for the world and the earth, they in their turn consume Man. Like rivals they consume one another; neither of them are satisfied. And no one is even aware of this fact Why are you here? Where did you come from? Where are you going? What is your reason for being, and for being on earth? These are perennial questions that human beings have always asked themselves. Science has been pretty successful in answering the question: Where are you, what kind of world do you live in?

Technology has tackled the problem: Yet, the deeper questions remain. These questions are not merely matters of abstract importance. The answers we give them also influence our immediate, daily lives. Man is born free—free to act as he chooses. There are many constraints laid by nature and society on our lives, but in many other respects we are free to act as we please.

All actions, however, cannot be ranked as equal. Some actions lead to happiness, while others lead to ruin—ultimately if not immediately. So the further question naturally arises of how to conduct our lives: How can we avoid building a house on quicksand?

It may come as a surprise that these questions concerning our direct experience and the fundamental, abstract questions of our existence should be related at all. Yet they are in fact inextricably linked. The answers we give to one set of questions perforce influence and even determine the other. The existence of God—the one and only Absolute Being not measurable by our categories of relative being and nonbeing, the One without a Second, beyond all infinities and beyond even the beyond—is the most fundamental truth about the universe, and it is this that orders our lives properly.

Even the atheist derives his principles from faith, and the scientist, when breaking new ground, is engaging in an act of faith, as all his theories themselves rest on faith—his faith in the scientific enterprise and the values that unify it. The reason why God created the universe is that He wished to be known: What is needed is a sentient being: Hence, God created human beings as the noblest, the most honorable, of all creatures, in order that they should recognize His existence, worship Him, and through such worship, gradually come to know Him.

Worship in this context is synonymous with knowledge; it is the practice of techniques that draw us nearer to God. In order to attain knowledge of God, however, one must first be in a state of ignorance. And this is precisely our situation on earth. We are initially ignorant not just about God, but about the world we live in. It is not easy to overcome this ignorance. Hence, God has endowed us with tools by which we may do so. He has gifted us with consciousness, so that we are aware of ourselves and the universe. He has granted us intelligence, so that we can understand our world, and perceive His signs in the universe.

Since God is the most sublime truth about the universe, but because of that also the most difficult to discover, He has provided us with guidance through members of our own species to whom He has revealed some of His secrets—namely, prophets and their successors, the saints. He has revealed the principles conducive to our improvement by means of holy books relayed to us through the prophets. He has thus provided us with firm guidelines that will save us from ruining our destiny.

And, finally, He has endowed us with the faculty of faith. Since God cannot be compared to anything in the universe or out of it , experiencing His presence is not given to everyone. Nevertheless, it is necessary to believe in Him if we are to live our lives ethically and serve Him in realizing His purpose. This human trait is so powerful that man inevitably has faith in something if not in its proper object, i. Because nature abhors a vacuum, this hollow in human beings can be filled by almost anything—and it will inevitably be filled.

It has been filled with many things in the history of mankind. We are at the beginning of wisdom when we realize that it should be devoted to its rightful Owner. God has revealed His prescriptions for humanity in four major holy books. In addition, Islamic tradition relates that earlier prophets also received revelation, not in the form of complete books, but as sheets or pages. Adam received 10 pages, Seth received 50, Idris Enoch received 30 pages and Abraham received 10 pages, which add up to a total of Pages. Two things are common to these Four Books and Pages.

The first of these is the emphasis on One God. The second is the Golden Rule: All things have been created by the One God. All things stand in the same relation to God, their Creator. All things stand under the same ethical law. You, too, have been created by God. What is an ethical law for you is an ethical law for all beings. The treatment that pleases or displeases you will please or displease all creatures. Therefore, do unto other beings as you would like them to do unto you. In the face of nature, it is easy for man to deify what he sees before him, and yet primitive peoples in general have had a supreme deity above all their other deities.

In their pantheons of gods, the Greeks and the Romans had a supreme God which they called Zeus and Jupiter, respectively. The mistake in these cases arose from assigning importance to anything other than One God. Among world religions, only in the East is nontheism to be found. Early Hinayana Buddhism did not deal with the concept of God at all. But this has to be understood in light of the fact that at the time when the Buddha began to preach, there were two million Hindu gods in India; just as there are still eight million kami , or gods, in Japan.

Against this backdrop, it is not at all surprising that the Buddha found it ill-advised to express his ideas within a theistic framework. A short while later, the deity concept was reintroduced with the emergence of Mahayana Buddhism. A hyperinflation of gods, then, can lead to the rejection of them all as a backlash. The first negation part of the formula: The history of man is really the history of faith. The founders of thought, of science and of society all drew on their faith in God Almighty. The universe as a whole must have a sufficient reason, which must be outside the universe.

This sufficient reason is God. Whence it follows also that He exists It is unjust that the virtuous should suffer. Since this often happens in this world, there must be another world where they are rewarded after death, and there must be a God to secure justice in the life hereafter. In spite of being a self-confessed agnostic in his later years, he stated: The father of space science, he wrote: I find it as difficult to understand a scientist who does not acknowledge the presence of a superior rationality behind the existence of the universe as it is to comprehend a theologian who would deny the advances of science.

Lamenting how we have forgotten God, he said: Speaking on the Islamic legacy to Europe, Prince Charles has said: The contribution of Muslim Spain to the preservation of classical learning during the Dark Ages, and to the first flowering of the Renaissance, has long been recognized. But Islamic Spain was much more than a mere larder where Hellenistic knowledge was kept for later consumption by the emerging modern world.

Not only did Muslim Spain gather and preserve the intellectual content of ancient Greek and Roman civilization, it also interpreted and expanded upon that civilization, and made a vital contribution of its own in so many fields of human endeavour—in science, astronomy, mathematics, algebra itself an Arabic word , law, history, medicine, pharmacology, optics, agriculture, architecture, theology, music.

Averroes and Avenzoor, like their counterparts Avicenna and Rhazes in the East, contributed to the study and practice of medicine in ways from which Europe benefited for centuries afterwards. We know of lending libraries in Spain at the time of King Alfred That was made possible because the Muslim world acquired from China the skill of making paper more than four hundred years before the rest of non-Muslim Europe.

Many of the traits on which Europe prides itself came to it from Muslim Spain. Diplomacy, free trade, open borders, the techniques of academic research, of anthropology, etiquette, fashion, alternative medicine, hospitals, all came from this great city of cities. Mediaeval Islam was a religion of remarkable tolerance for its time, allowing Jews and Christians to practice their inherited beliefs, and setting an example which was not, unfortunately, copied for many centuries in the West. Even orthodox Christians or Jews , provided they confront the facts with an open mind, cannot deny certain parallels:.

With his passionate piety and his revolutionary preaching, he stood up against the wealthy ruling class and the tradition of which it was the guardian. He called for every kind of gratitude toward God and generosity toward human beings. The fact is often overlooked that Many other scholars from the Christian world have researched and examined Islam, testifying to the wisdom of the Glorious Koran and the greatness of the Prophet Mohammed.

Fritjof Schuon, the acknowledged expert of Grand Tradition in our time, has written: That he did not do so proves in any case two things, namely a character of absolute integrity, and an authentic message from God; both thingsthe human qualification and the divine interventionare necessarily combined, for the Messenger must be in conformity with the Message, he must in some manner anticipate it by his character and by his gifts.

One of the greatest thinkers of the 19th century, Edward Gibbon, stated in his Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire that the new faith brought by Mohammed was purged of the skepticism of uncertainty, and that the Koran provides a magnificent witness to the unity of God. The Mahometans have uniformly withstood the temptation of reducing the object of their faith and devotion to a level with the senses and imagination of man. The intellectual image of the Deity has never been degraded by any visible idol ; the honors of the prophet have never transgressed the measure of human virtue; and his living precepts have restrained the gratitude of his disciples within the bounds of reason and religion.

The Christian missionary, Rev. The Quran is a book which is a poem, a code of laws, a book of common prayer, all in one, and is reverenced by a large section of the human race as a miracle of purity in style, of wisdom, and of truth. If ever any man had the right to say that he ruled by the right divine, it was Mohammad, for he had all the power without its instruments and without its supports.

The Englishman John Davenport, who emphasized the justice of Islam and was a student of the history of world religions, stated: It offered its religion, but never enforced it. For this reason no less than for the beginnings of science in the modern sense, [10] says Davenport, the West owes much indeed to the Moslems. For, not to mention that to the struggles during the Crusades we mainly owe the abolition of the onerous parts of the feudal system, and the destruction of those aristocratic despotisms on the ruins of which arose the proudest bulwark of our liberties, Europe is to be reminded that she is indebted to the followers of Muhammad, as the link which connects ancient and modern literature; for the preservation, during a long reign of Western darkness, of the works of many of the Greek philosophers; and for the cultivation of some of the most important branches of science, mathematics, medicine, etc.

Spain, Cassino, the Salernum were the nurseries of the literature of the age; and the works of Avicenna, Averroes, Beithar, Abzazel and others gave new vigour and direction to the studies of Western scientists. The famous American psychoanalyst, Jules Masserman, in stating his views on leadership Time magazine, July 15, , reached the following conclusion: Hart, the American astronomer, historian and mathematician, accorded Mohammed first place in his page book: The Koran clearly declares: Truth now stands clear from error.

Is it based on the teachings of the Koran, and on the example set by the Prophet Mohammed? A tradition of the Messenger of God declares: The following sayings regarding courtesy, or splendid moral conduct, have been culled from the Traditions of the Prophet and the aphorisms of the great saints. It is the cause of communion with God. It is food for the road that leads to God. The whole of Sufism is courtesy. The spirit of that body is courtesy. But when courtesy increases, it becomes more valuable.

And he who does not adopt these cannot adopt the courtesy of the Koran and its sacred verses. In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful. There is no god but God, and Mohammed is His Messenger. O sons of Adam, sons of Man, we have to obey the commandments of God, who has created us. We must pay very careful attention. Consider the following dialogue:. God, who has created us, has many commandments for us human beings. How do you stand with respect to His orders? He who fears God and loves God should prostrate himself to God. The faith and creed of a person who does not prostrate to God is weak.

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Can you comprehend the taste of a fruit without eating it, by imagination alone? To know and understand God on an empty heart and dry words is a vain illusion. From Adam—the first man and Prophet—to Mohammed, the last Prophet, a Prophet has been sent to every period and every society of mankind. He has made known the essence of these discourses and commands to His servants with Four Great Books and Pages. Earlier prophets have received various divine pages that add up to a hundred. It is necessary to live humanly, thoughtfully and attentively.

The following excerpt from a book by a noted Turkish historian takes a sociological approach to religion. While its coverage of certain issues may be found controversial by some Moslems, the clarity of its treatment is exceptional, and it was decided to leave the selection as it appeared in the Turkish original of the present book.

All human beings belonging to the major religions believe in the unity of God, His messengers, and their holy books. The existence of religion can be observed in every society, from primitive tribes through empires down to the democratic nations of our day.

Religion still lives on as a significant institution in the structure of society. There has been no society without religion. Societies that have known how to utilize the essence, rules, and requirements of religion have been fortunate and prosperred. On the other hand, backward societies, deviating from its essence and turning it into an exploited institution, have fallen into misery and darkness. Although religions are primarily systems for contemplation, they have also introduced a moral philosophy and a social order. In addition, they have influenced the liberal arts via religious ferment.

From the concept of the existence of God, theology, such as Islamic theology, and mystical movements such as Sufism were born. In the area of spirituality, religion built metaphysical edifices. In the social field, it initiated bloody struggles in order to achieve equal civil rights. In the arts, wonders were created as exemplified in religious music, religious literature, in religious paintings, statues, and in architecture in the form of magnificent temples.

Religion also covers mythology. The legends attributed to the prophets were known to everyone. Using the methods of historical investigation, I desired to study the effects of religious institutions on societies since the beginning of mankind. When I started preparations for this work, I thought I would be studying the mythological legends of prophets, their adventures, and stories related to heaven and hell. And there are indeed various romantic episodes, loves, bloody struggles and mystical events in their lives. Yet almost from the start, my views changed substantially as certain points forced themselves on my attention.

The most exacting struggles of prophets have occurred in the moral field. The second point is the concept of Right. In every century of history, human beings have been exploited by kings, by feudal lords, priests and the rich. In their struggle against oppression, people have been led either by prophets or by their successors.

Utilizing one of the strongest feelings, namely, religion, these have managed to rally thousands of people to their cause. New religions were born, new holy books arrived, new religious injunctions became canonical law. In this way, Divine Law was established. Struggles have accompanied efforts to obtain these rights, and blood has been shed. The richest source for prophetic history is the Old Testament. The Torah, which constitutes its first five books, is a holy book describing the lives of prophets.

Information concerning prophets can also be found in the Koran, and is scattered throughout the religious literature. My task was to collate these into one book. Prophets not mentioned in heavenly books have also come to mankind and established religions. Notable among such exceptions are Hermes Thoth , who founded a religion in ancient Egypt; Confucius, who attracted millions in China; Buddha, the founder of Buddhism and perhaps the greatest religious luminary of India; and Zoroaster, the founder of Mazdeism in Persia. I found it instructive to write about the concepts of these great men of religion and their notions concerning God.

Perhaps they are not prophets in the ordinary sense of the word, but they are, nevertheless, great personalities who have managed to attract millions of people to their teachings. Men have felt duty-bound to learn about all the prophets mentioned in heavenly books, about their lives, ideas, and adventures, and have memorized their experiences.

Down to this day, men of religion have written the biographies of prophets and have mythologized them. Indeed, their lives have come down to us largely in the form of mythology. Hodjas have recounted their tales in mosques, priests have expounded them from the pulpit. Artists have embodied scenes from their lives in paintings, while novelists have written literary works about them. The lives of the most famous prophets have become the common heritage of mankind.

The history of prophets is at the same time a history of religious and social struggles. Through the ages, men have fallen into immorality, robbed and killed each other, and worshiped animals and stones. Social orders have been ruined, human beings have chosen ill-advised paths ending only in despair.

These great men have suffered all kinds of cruelty, and yet have endured in their struggles with God-given inspiration. After Moses, first Jesus and then Mohammed have succeeded in binding people to the greatness of God within a meaningful framework. I have respected the beliefs of religious people in this work, and have not violated basic sensibilities. Being a historian, however, I tried to discover truth by taking an historical approach. I have written a historical work, not a religious one.

This is the right way. For the study of the past is such a vast field of knowledge that it encompasses the history of the entire universe. Human history is but a small part of the latter. In short, history is a mirror of the universe, a mirror for humanity. Man discovers his soul in that mirror, he observes his good and evil aspects therein. For this reason, the past is an ocean; the universe and mankind find life within it. Just as every nation, every science, every art has a history, so too does every religion and prophet.

And hence I have written the history of prophets in this work. If, reading it, you conceive some affection for me in your heart, however small, that then shall be my reward. In creating man, God endowed him with three gifts: Intelligence, Conscience and an appreciation for Beauty. These three properties are found neither in inanimate things nor in plants. God has withheld them from other creatures and bestowed them on man. Among living beings, animals possess neither intelligence in the human sense, nor conscience, nor aesthetic sensibility.

They maintain their existence by instinct alone, striving to further their lives and propagate their species. They cannot build houses to protect them from the elements, nor produce light to escape the darkness of night. They possess neither the means to warm themselves nor a conscience towards their own kind. The strong prevail over the weak. They have no characteristics such as compassion, morality and charity.

Further, they do not enjoy the beauties of nature. Animals do not distinguish colors, they feel. They cannot discern the hues of sunrise and sunset, nor gaze in wonder at them. They cannot appreciate works of art. All these gifts have been given to man alone. The most important gift in the possession of man is intelligence: The mind gives rise to thoughts. From the first day of his creation, man has observed nature with admiration. He has watched the sunrise and sunset, the night, moon and stars, with keen interest. What power creates these phenomena? Who controls and guides them?

Man conceives that the whole universe is sourced by a divine being; he feels fear and awe towards this tremendous being, and begins to respect Him. He feels gratitude to this being because of the gifts He has bestowed. And so, in trying to understand the phenomena occuring in the universe with his intelligence, the concept of God is born in man. In his soul he bears the greatest respect for Him. From this concept of God, in turn, the institution of religion was born. This feeling began with the first human being, for God has endowed even the most primitive man with intelligence.

The first man was naked; he was covered with hair, yet he was a human being. He was initially created with intelligence, conscience and aesthetic appreciation, but had not yet formed societies. He foraged bird eggs, fruit and caterpillars; he hunted animals and caught fish. It took man thousands of years to advance from this primitive state.

The first human societies formed were clans. Together with society, six social institutions appeared: Among these, religion has had the deepest effect on society. Man gradually arrived at the notion of one God. At an early stage, human beings living in fear ascribed divinity to animals that suddenly loomed before them in adverse moments. This period of religion has been called totemism, where the totem is an animal or a tree.

Animism marked the period of transition to the worship of ancestral spirits. In earth naturalism, man worshiped the earth, mountains, springs and rivers considered holy. In sky naturalism, the sun, moon and stars were idolized. Shamanism emerged in Central Asia and spread westward. It occupied an important place in human history and the history of religious thought.

These early religions were followed by the period of monotheism, or worship of one God. The Greeks and Romans fostered polytheism—the worship of many gods, also referred to as paganism. Finally, however, religions based on one God triumphed. Unity of divinity is the final form of faith. Belief in one God reached a high point with Abraham. The intelligence of human beings resulted in the concept of God, which in turn gave birth to religion. Philosophers have defined religion in many ways in accordance with the ages they lived in, and finally it has been defined as: It means that as you punish, so will you be punished.

It also means the accounting on Judgment Day. The following questions have influenced the emergence of religion: Where did I come from, and where am I going? What is this world of objects that surrounds me? How was it formed? Man has always had religious feelings. What air is for the body, religion is for the spirit. As white clouds, bear no treasure on your bead , place on the treasure, as the sun, your foot ; So that the earth, all moistened by the cloud , mav by your kisses turn to burnished gold Pour out upon the sun a purse of gold, and in the fiery ruby plant a stone Gold ib two letters, unconnected each ; how long boast of this worthless, scattered thing i Let not your heart, like earth, be filled witli gold, so that you he not scattered e'en like gold Each balance which devotes itself to gold suffers front stoning at a thousand doors Collecting thus with pain and fear is not collecting silver, but adoring gold The world's the house of diva, then hasten you, that you be not of ruined bouse like diva The house of demons is a demon's house, although it be a palace lit for kings.

The earth and air which arc your foes are these: The branch which to the date-palm pays no toll S tis beet to make a rolling-pin for paste To cure the pain of him whose stomach's leer some lf tutmaj strips excel rose-petala far Better extract your teeth than over-cat p that as a pearl of price you be esteemed, See how the comb which has a thousand teeth has thence a hand in every person's beard Beside the doorway of this butcher's shop you will not find a portion without heart A hundred hearts are tom on every side ere any good condition may accrue.

The necks of many thousand chiefs are broke before the neck of one escape the sky The foot of one upon a treasure hits, another gains a scrap of gold with toil Affairs when not to any person's wish—frustration's hatter than obtaining it , Every desire which late in life you've gained felicitates you on a life prolonged, Tis best the long-lived gain their wishes late ; life's business in perfection's perfected The ruby which takes long to come lasts long; the anemone soon eomes 3 and quickly goes.

How long light np the assembly like a lamp; make all you can of self, and burn yourself l bice from this bestial den away, and take your head out of this jar of crockery H Cut from above this seven rooted tree; and draw off from your foot this four-nailed shoe From such a well, mat-covered, which is dead as any stone or mat come pass away As lightning, living die, that you may smile: If you're an aspirant such as you're thought, pursue the road will bring you name of " pTr s ' Be no disciple aspirationlew; do not be weak of faith in trust in God 42G.

Whilst in this furnace which one's nature ripes as grape unripe I still was somewhat raw , Fortune made use of inc as grape unripe, made of me verjuica- tutty for the sight My iron which is all with gold inlaid in composition—see its silvery work ! Since such the work of jewels and of coin r why should one fe.

The traveller should for the road prepare, and be not slow to keep from peril's tracts I'm going, but the ass does not arrive; I scarce can think I'm really soon to go , Of my departing I shall be aware when my retreat is outside of the door How long devoid of knowledge should I speak? How long essay to string pearls with dosed eyes ? Be utterly forgetful of your eyes; commune with the divine, and silence keep ; That you may know that in whatever you know you are in error quite, or you mislead Throw spade away, a torrent's dug the road: The sky 1 a spade of the earth has made el pit; the earth regards not such a spade as yours.

Do whaVer you wkh. How long Nizami will you be in bonds? Arise and speak out with uplifted voice Give to the Unity Divine your souI T that you may gain eternal happiness. The students of the college of God's work, when they have learnt the lesson of discourse; Slade theory the guard of practice too, and solved the secret of exist mg things— Each to a sleeping-place has swept the path, and when the time of sleep has come has slept , Counsel to his son Muhammad, My son, I bid you earnestly take tare that you be wakeful— I have gone to sleep Let your coin bear the impression of good fame—by loftiness you reach the lofty sky— So that I in the place where Vm confined may be upraised by your exaltitude.

A friend whose breath is bad is better far than one whoj speaking, only nonsense talks. The vice of one associate is enough to give a bad name to a hundred men- When one crude beast of prey into the snare falls, after it a hundred others fall. The swallowing of coin by one who's poor tears many stomachs on the pilgrims 1 road. The more so that a road h tis for the chase—the sky has bow and arrow for the prey Although your iron be of temper fine, the road is stoncj and lodestonc is that Atone - Bind not upon this beast a load so great that it may fail to mount this steep ascent , When in a strait induced by two-hued time, let lor your heart the road be wide, not strait 4SG , Many a knot is key to what is hid ; in many a hardship there is ease contained.

How many a dream which fills the heart with gloom is really gladness when interpreted Although the shaft of sorrow pierce the heart, for such day patience ia a coat ol mail. Maintain your promises and faith with God, end keep your heart by other ties unvexed. When you break not your promises to God, I promise you'll escape from this and that , translation 35 Take not apart the good pearl from the string ; from him who is of evil nature floe. An evil nature acts consistently: The scorpion since it is by nature bad—to let it live's a fault, to bill it, good. Seek knowledge, for through knowledge you effect that doors to you be opened and not closed , He who shames not at learning can draw forth pearls from the water, rubies from the rock.

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By knowledge since a dog may grow upright , r lls like a man an angel may become. Life's Water is not that of living things ; Tis soul with reason, reason 'tis with soul The reason with the soul's a single gift; the soul with reason s that which lives for aye When you have found that one then lose the two j place your foot on the head of the two worlds Abandon three, this sums up piety ; two also leave, the jurist a judgment this When to these two youYe lost no fabler tell; and seek no medium when you've found that One 50B , So long as we may have this capital, whateWs outside of this is vekin desire Whilst youth and healthful state to us remain h the means are found of gaining every wish.

When the straight cypress falls off Ln decay, where then can any remedy be gained ? You, with youth's freshness, who possess the world, pursue the path now which you can pursue. I who t rattan-like h have no freshness left—my tulips yellow grown t my violets white — Through lack of strength no longer have the power to wear a crown or gird rny loins to serve I used to do some service men might do, hut Iruly 1 m not now the man I was.

Fortune has seised and bound me in this mode ; such rule and custom are in Fortune seen. That person has no shadow in the world who before men's a lamb, a wolf behind, I see no one before me who is not a friend before me, and a foe behind 5. How long shallJ darkness last still? Since a sharp dagger has been drawn by dawn , how long, Niiviimi, will you sleep? Arise 1 Do miners' work, and vex not at your toil: The heavens have a balance with two scales' in one are stones, and in the other pearls. Tha loins of kings produce the same effect.

As stone and pearl in their respective fame, so were King Yazdijard and King Bahrlm. One struck, the other cherished—strange indeed 1 It is as rock with mby, spines with dates , To him whom one had wounded and distressed the other gave a remedy and gifts When first the dawn of Bahrain, luminous , carried ill-fame o5 from the gloomy night , The heaters of the kiln of alchemy sublime , those learned in the moon and sun. Expected that the scales in which they weighed the sky would give but silver half-alloyed They found indeed in them the purest gold: The tail of Pmw too towards Saturn turned, and the sun fallen into Aries, As Jupiter each star too wit acting in favour of its own anspiciousneas.

When Bahrain most auspiciously was bom with such a horoscope ns I fc vc described, His father, Ynzdijaid, whose thoughts were crude, used riper thought, and studying his own. Saw all matured by him as immature—seed of injustice, work of evil end. In twenty years before that circumstance some children he had had, but none had lived. Hie sire loved rather to preserve his Ufe than keep him as the object of hU love He held in greater honour than his eyes a fount of light more famous than the sun. When four years passed away Bahrain became a crafty onager, a lion bold.

King Ku'man represented to his son O son, my mind n anxious and disturbed ; Because this ait is dry, the land is hot, whilst delicate and tender is the prince. Such castle in those regions was not found ; and those which were did not quite suit their aim. They sought for masters of the building art h prepared the ground too for the work in hand. Whoe'er proposed to cany ont that aka—the plan that he proposed was not approved. Until at last true tidings reached Nu man that such an artist as would meet his views Was one most famous from the laud!

One quick and dexterous, skilled in 6neat work; one of the race of Sam 54S p his name Simnlr. All lands had witnessed his supremacy, and by all eyes too it had been approved. In Egypt and in Syria he had built buildings not few, each perfect of its kind. With judgment and discernment joined to this the stars he'd studied, taken altitudes. Acquainted with the veiled ones of the sky, the moon's night raids, the sun's hostility The ordering of this business might be found in him, he only inch a robe could weave.

With day bo grand a dome would he construct that it would match lamps from, the stars away. He ashed him to accomplish the design, and then prepared all needed for his work A house is ornament and gilding rich; fire-hue , a orc as Similar could adorn. A sphere with legs drawn under restMy whilst the sine Bober-es flew round it in their course uW. When clouds inverted the sun it then became in subtile beauty like u silver cloud. J Wrapped in the veil of concord with the air, it showed bv turns the Greek s and Ethiopia look Nu uniTi gave him good tidings of reward ao great that for its naif ne bad not hoped: Of which were camcl-loads of purest gold, and precious stores of jewels and of mtisk: More than could be computed, so that he ought be of use.

The giving hand, to " dirams " a distress, is usher of the court of noble traits 56'? Said, If before this business l had known of all that which the King lias promised me. The adornments of this dome of Chinese work I had made somewhat better in these bounds The face of Nu'nian fired up at these words ; lie burnt the fttoro of kind and human thought. But that round which it twists with seeming love it tears up root and branch and brings to naught Thus thinking , he gave orders to his slaves to throw him from the roof with no delay. So that they tore that cypress from the root; they blinded him fc and threw him from the fort.

He raised a castle in some yearn aloft, and fortune threw him from it in a trice. He made a fire and fell into the smoko l he went late on the roof, and fell down soon. J Tis well to raise the throne-stops not so high that youd bo fractured if you fell from them. One or another would in flowing verse each point of beauty of Khavarnaq show. When Bahrain mounted to the roof of it, Venus to wish him joy took np the cup , He saw a palace fashioned like the sky: Sweet water on one side was flowing past; in wholesome purity the Stream of Life One day Nn'mSn was seated with Bahrain viewing the prospect on that royal root AH round that house of paradise he saw the anemone's red hue, the meadow's green.

He said, Wlist call be lovelier than this?

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In truth p to know God's lovelier than anything there is in your domains. Then through the kindjer of that burning spark was softened Nu L man's firm and forceful heart. Since the sky raised iti seven high fortresses, bo strong a crane had never been at work Nu'niin sprang from his place and rent his robes ; he ran down from the roof like one distraught.

He gave up thoughts of treasure and of rule, religion and the world cannot accord. He took himself away from sovereignty, nnd vanished rom the people like a fay No person saw him more in his own hou. He seeing ao escape from throne and crows, assumed the duties of the crown and throne. Fenced back oppression, justice forwarded, and fixed dominion on a solid base He bad a handsome son, by name Nu'man, who with Bahrain had drunk one nurse's milk.

Through friendship and equality of pgc NVman would not a moment part from Mm. They studied from one tablet both as one, and in the same assembly scattered pearls Except for study he had no desire ; his intellect to knowledge was his guide. The Zodiacs twelve signs, the planets seven, casket by casket, lay disclosed to him , He d worked, too r at lines geometrical 3 and countless books like the MijastI solved Observer of the water-coloured sky was be , the drops he d measured drop by drop G06 , Then he had given his mind the knowledge too of the far-seeing secret store-houses , Finding the prince had intellect and sense in learning and in solving mysteries.

All the ideas which [from most were hid, whether pertaining to the earth or heavens— He gathered all together one by one, and when all Lad been gathered, taught him them. Till Bahrain so improved he knew in hill the principled of every science known. With tables and the astrolabe to guide he would unveil the lace of the unknown When he was skilled in controversial arte he nest elected to get skilled in anus.

When by that grade distinguished Before his skill in piercing with the lance dawn's sword despaired at his prc-cseeUcnce Whene er be shot his arrow at a mark, upon the mark he scored a felling stroke When from the thumbstall he discharged the shaft, the bird in flight he brought down from the air. At times lie would attack the elephant, at times play with the raging Lon fierce.

Speak not of fatherhood and brotherhood—a servant that, in all things, this, a slave. The sire to him in giving knowledge kind, the eon with him P to grace assemblies, joined One by imparting knowledge strengthened him, the other took him for delightful rides Until the riding of Bahrain was such that to the sky from earth bis name arose. Hts business only drinking and the chase—no other business occupied his time. A courser fleet, which truversing the road, bore off the ball from sun and lunar disk The prince would ride it on a hunting day; with any other steed he'd naught to do.

When he the onager-hoofed chestnut rode, the onagers around him cried applause. At times when from the tedium of affairs Bahrain , that mounted lion, saddled it. The field became soon from its shoes a place of pictures,, picture upon picture seen More than the rocks have weight did he spread out hillocks around of onagers and deer. The plain beneath his horse's hoofs became a tomb through oil the heaps of onagers. Upon his chestnut, courser of the hills, through whose swift flight the sky lost currency , The hunt ing lasso when he took iu hand, he captured countless living onagers.

Most of the onagers which Bahrain took, by strength of arm or lasso did he throw. If he dashed down a hundred onagers a not any less than four years old he killed. He had forbidden all to shed the blood of any one not fully four years old. He branded first its name upon its thigh, and gave it then the freedom oE the plain By such a king on mountain or on plain the onager when branded brands escapes,— In such a place of tombs there id no ant not branded by the hand of some harah act Lost in amazement at the majesty his form from head to foot displayed were alL A cloud qf dust rose suddenly afar, such that the sky united with the earth The monarch of the world urged on his steed, like flowing water towards that dust he rode A bon, with aggressive ckws stretched out, on a wild ass's back and neck he saw, So from above to bring it to the ground the prince took out his bow aud lay in wait.

Sought from the quiver a sharp-pointed shaft, then put it to the string and drew it back. The sharp jnsint struck the shoulders of the two, and having pierced them passed through both the holes ; Then to its notch 'twiis buried in the ground—What profits mail or shield before such shaft 1 When from the thumbstall he had seat the abaft, the prince stood holding in his hand the bow.

The onager and lion fell and died j the shaft lav in the ground a heart to its plumes.

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The Arabs seeing such a shot approved the ruler of the Persians he should be. From that time forth they called him Lion-strong ; thenceforth entitled him King Bahru eh Gur. When they had readied the town they told the tale in full of onager and lion slain J. Mundr gave orders to his ministers that painters should with their materials come.

That they should in Ehavarnac] paint in gold the lion crouching on the onager; The prince in pose h the arrow to its notch in the earth when he'd shot and pierced the two. Maher of the world upon the hand so mighty of its king. Bah ram goes o the chase and kills a dragon. Ia hifl celestial dwelling on a day he set his vessel floating over wine From tD the onagers he took by force the plain became all covered with their bones.

At last a female onager appeared, and cast disturbance all throughout the world Its form a spiritual vision seemed, a being bright of faee p of forehead wide. Polished as golden ingot was its back; its stomach as with milk and sugar smeared.

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A musky line was drawn from head to tail, and streak on streak was seen from haunch to hoof In place of horse's housing it was clothed m with a veil of silk of rusty hue. A fire which made the hay its relative ; a ruddy-faced one clad in dunrfih robe Upon its back the dusty leather strap had left the saddte- pominel "twixt two roads 65S , Its crupper-slope from the skin's darker part gained that which silver gains from black opposed Bahrain dashed forward when he saw the IK gur: The onager, young, swift of foot, in truth ; the hunter swift as lion in pursuit.

From days beginning till the suiTi decline the wild ass ran, the lion at its heels Until it reached a cave far from the plain , by which the foot of man had never passed. A fire, in blackness issuing, like smoke which through a chimney raises up its head A cavern's mouth its mouth, and in the world with naught but havoc was it occupied. Sated with the wild ass's foal just atc h 'twaa in bold mood to overthrow its prey.

When the prince saw the affliction on his road, a dragon he became on seeing one. From his two-headed shafts of poplar white he sought an arrow of the broadest make He boldly drove a javelin at its throat , as boa's claws are into wild ass drived. He bent hie back in thanks! Many large, splendid jam had [there been placed, which fairy'like their faces veiled from man. After a tittle while the royal guards came up in troops upon the prince's tracks.

W hen one and all of them had joined the prince, they all drew up in serried ranks around. The prince commanded that the servants there — all those who were both bold and also strong — Should get into the treasure-house, tlie cave ; should hear the treasure out and load it up. Ten eameHciads lie sent oil on the road, a present to his majesty the king Ten did he give to Mtmzir and his son, with certain other rare and precious things. The rest he spent with fearless unconcern, free from examiners and auditor. So such a treasure as he'd brought to light , he dearly got T and cheaply did dispose Then Munrir ordered h Let a painter come and once more paint a picture [as before.

The painter came, and took his brush and limned the picture of the dragon and the prince , And whatsoever Bahru m did of this kind was in Klhavarnaq by the painter limned. Ho saw a secret room with fastened door, which by the keeper had been overlooked. The prince had not set foot within that room, nor had Hm courtiers or custodlans- He said. Why h this room locked np h and where the keeper of it; where too h the key?

Nay, a treasure-house They cn the walls of that apartment showed all that the finest workmanship could show. In it were finely painted seven forms, each one concocted with a certain Clime: Fiirak, of India's Raja daughter, first, in lace more lovely than the moon when full. The king of SarjlaVs daughter Nasrin-. The king of Maghrib's daughter Aiar-Gun, a sun like to the daily waxing moon. Within one circle by a cord hung up these seven had been all together limned In each ol them wore countless beauties seen to light the essence of the light of sight His head exalted like a cypress's; his crown was [formed of silver, gold, and gems.

Towards him were turned these seven beauties 7 evea ; each one had given her heart to love of him. He giving to those beauties pleasant smiles; they all before him as devoted slaves. Shall take like precious pearls unto his breast seven monarcha T daughters from the Seven Climes, We have not sown this seed know] of ourselves ; we've written what the planets have declared. The love ol those lair girls in picture seen] completely and entirely filled his heart, Li hid me percitis equabua et equo vehement ia rapto ; a lion- like young man and seven brides— Should not desire to gain one s wish be great?

Should not the heart cry out to gain its aim? In all the household, man or woman, none dared ever give a glance towards that room. From time to time when overcome with love, the prinee went towards that door with key in hand. Before the water there like one athirst, in longing for it he would fall asleep. As earful of that fiery lion then was Yazdijard as lions are of fire. Far from his sight he let him still remain, although sight is deficient wanting light Bahrain both day and night went to the chase; sometimes he node his steed, sometimes drank wine.

He hastened to the chase, and to the cup. He shone in Yamatt like Canopus bright The king of Yaman from excess ol love made his commands effective as the sky's. Whatever gems and treasure he required were his h and his no particle of pain- So from the favour ho received abroad he did not bring to mind his father's land.

When time had passed along through several turns, the lofty aky displayed a novel game, King Yazdijard grew weary of the throne ] p and after high success in life came down- The crown and throne which from his sires he had to him did as to others it had done. Said everyone, We wilt not look at Kim, nor give him tidings of Lis father's death; Since that wild man.

Land, treasure to the Arabs he would give, whilst those in Persia bom would suffer pain. They placed the royal Mown upon his head, and gave to lum the belt of seven gems As soon, U Bahrfm Gar heard that the sky had brought one of its cycles to an end t Had started a fresh cycle once again ; that things were contrary to what Lad been; That when his sire the thought of crown gave up. Then alter this resolved that lion-like he'd draw his sword upon bis enemies That he would use his sword against his foes, open the door of strife and enmity. Again he said, Why use ferocity?

Tis best that I at first use wisdom's aid. Although the Persians erred in this that they withdrew their hearts from reverence for mo, I will not look into their hardened hearts, but mildness use, for mildness is the key. With all their enrrishness they are my game ; they all are still the sheep of my own mead. Although they lie and sleep in their own wool, all lie and sleep still in my cotton fields Tia best they sAoutf be faithless, hard of heart p that they afc last before me may be shamed.

From perfidy shame overtakes a man, and from that shame regret and pain ensue. All ignominious treatment which I see beyond this is a form of tyranny The man who is impatient with the game will find his arrow fall wide of the mark. That one has made from copper silver pure, and from the silver this one makes pure gold Since vouVe seen copper to fine silver turned , he not surprised il silver turns to gold. Bahmm Gur goes to Persia, and finds another occupying he throne. The joiner of the parts of this high throne thus adds to it a part comply joined Treasure more plentiful than could be named ; jewels more numerous than one could bore.

In heart a 1iou s each of them, and fit to hold a country by a single sword. Troops more than ants and locusts in their count, ns hot in rancour ns the fire of hell. The monarch of the world received the news that a young dragon had unclosed its jaws That to the earth the heavens had inclined. Canopus bad from Yaman raised its head That he would take the throne and seize the crown—would aettie down himself, and lay the dust The nobles and the ministers and guards all came together to the royal conrt TIG.

They met in congress and expressed their views ; they spurned all arrogance away from them After reflection they decided thus , that they would write a letter to Bahrim. They all alighted when they reached their goal ; Fortune asked blessings on the rightful king , translation 65 They sought an audience, which was granted them; the chamberlains gave heed to their concerns, Bahrain, the king;, allowed them to approach from the more distant place at which they stood. He who the ball of wisdom bore away, kissing the super- scrip Hon, gave the note , After unsealing it the monarch's scribe then read it to the kingdom-taking king.

Its outside was adornment of brocade; its inside waa an oil-containing lamp] , The letter opened with the name of God, who by His grace guides those who go astray. Creation is a knot by Him unloosed ; praise is the seal Ho has affixed to it , He is the keeper of the earth and time ; both this and that obey as He commands. And for my merit Fortune fosters me—How can the mentis get crown and throne? My eminence has given me crown and throne—the base man never can be eminent. Though the dominion of the earth is mine ; the leadership of fairies and of men, Still with this sovereignty Fm not content, for 'tis a piece of honey poison-mixed.

They thus induced me to become the ting—the exalted holder of the crown and throne K To keep deterioration from the realm—such office is not rule, but guardianship. This proverb comes in story upposite: The foe to creed s a friend to all the world , But you no knowledge have of such a world ; you of another world are sovereign lord. You'd rather find an onager than meet out of a thousand troubles even one.

A draught of wine, the while the lute is played T more than aught "ncttth the azure sky you bve. At night and dawn you re at the chase or cup; you jov in eating, now, and now T in sleep r Not like me day and night remote from joy, and heart-sick with the care of man's affairs. How happy is your pleasure-loving soul that your head is remote from such distress!

Would that this business had attached to me ; perchance my business then had been my own I should have lived in pleasure, sport, and play; caressed mv soul with music and with wine. But owing to your father's foolish acts, the shadow of the crown's not near your head ; For to his subjects be behaved not so that none had reason to set forth complaint-.

No one could utter praises of that lino; no one could in that ground sow any seed Since no one here desires y'ou os his king, p tis better far that you should hence retire. You 1 II meet hot fire if you get hot nod rage; you'll only Strike cold iron if you strive , I, in the time of your necessity, will from my secret treasure scatter gold. Bahrain Gut's ansirer to the letter of the Persians. The reader having read the letter through, an angry fire blazed up ia Bahrain's breast, Again, by great exertion, like the wise, to patience he constrained himself forthwith.

Such heat of anger led him not to haste; he first reflected, then gave answer thus: Although the writer wag not dexterous, the counsel is not veld of standard worth But the domains which 1mm my sire I have 'twould be a rin to leave in others' hands. Although my sire claimed Qodship, I myself, in virtue trained, claim only love lor God.

There is a diflerence throughout between him who loves Cod and him who Godship loves. My father is not I, lam not he j if he was stone, I am not stone, but gem. Tis ill to testify against my sire, for God has now delivered you from ton. If he did iU 5 since he ia well asleep—one must not everj speak ill of the dead So think no more about, my father's sin, anti dwell no longer on my want o! The fortunate whom luck befriends—their sleep is not beyond the proper time for acta Although my sleep has been a heavy sleep, fortune has not been absent from my side.

Fortune has, in its kindness, wakened me ; Fm now] awakened from my heavy sleep. III favour those whose acts are for the best, and go to meet the moat expedient plans. Bygone offences Ill not call to mind ; I will not vex at what the times set forth Towards you act as it ia meet I should; and what is meet from you will I receive. The prudent from my court shall not be far i 01, and the ill- advised ITI alienate.

I'll show my favour to the good alone ; F0 not learn evil from the guide to it. Tho loaf of no one will I take by force, but rather by a loaf increase his loaf, The demon, greed, shall lead Die not astray; I'll count greed as a punishable sin I will not show to the spectator's eyes what the Creator would not hold approved. He eaid, You in your lordliness are wLe and giver, too, of wisdom to ua all. All you have said In your well-ordered, sense reason has graven on the ring, the heart. To wear the crown befits your nature too ; the crown's with us, but it is on your head , Save you, who's read the A vesta of Gushtasp 1 Save you, who's left to keep the Kai alive ?

The royal line of Bah man and Darii , Kayitnian Mugs , declares itself in you. Allied to throne and crown yoitr lineage goes back to King Knyumara , king by king. Dominion has no option as to vou p for save you there's no monarch in the world. The priests all, whether they be young or old, agree in this as with a single tongue. A heavy hand is laid upon us all by this strict pledge to him who holds the throne. We must now have some strong and valid plea to save ub from the infringement of that pledge [ ; So that in this affair we be not shamed: The titmter of King Bah mm to the pfiest.

King Babram when he beard this last reply, gave to them each an answer as was meet. So will I take the crown off from hh head that not a hair of Lt shall be disturbed; Although my sovereignty does not depend on showing mildness and adopting plena. I who though erownlcas, throneless, know the way T possess a sword. III take them by the sword. The Persian realm entire my treasure-house, my camp remains still in the Arabs' land. Now Munzir sends to me a troy ol food ; now Xu s man sacrifices makes for me , With all my royalty they give me bread , whilst [here they eat my bread so wickedly L a young lion, taker of domains—how should my place come to an aged fox 1 From me, the Xai 80S.

The wine the Magian elder has put down be only to the Marian elder given The royal crown he put down from his head, and placed between the sturdy lions grim. That mounted hero is a linn bold and fierce ; he hunta the dragon with a shaft. When the fierce lion stretches out his claws, to stand against him none will have the power. Tis beafc that we arouse him not to warmth ; ftis best we light not an extinguished fire.

But the condition is a weighty proof which indicates the hon and the wolf They all came off the journey to the court, and told the king's condition to the king. They read the letter and set forth the case ; no word they added on to what they'd heard. He said, I'm weary of this crown and throne, through which life to a lion most be given. From this affair I cow withhold my band ; l h m not the king, but the king's loyal slave. The noblftt gave him answer, speaking thus, 0 chief of kings and wearers of the crown, Our stipulation with yon as to rule is simply of this wise and prudent kind Since you ascended at out will the throne, at our will only give up your effects.

Since his condition touches lions, sure, much daring will he want to accomplish it. To seize a crown from bona is no play ;— let's see what tricks the dark night will show forth But il he kill them and bear off the crown, let him take tribute then from these domains. He will be worthy of the throne and praise ; but still remote the chance it bo ehonld be.